After two years, they will give you a surplus of delicious fruits. Plants begin fruiting in early summer, and the season lasts approximately 4-5 weeks. Provide enough support to your plants by installing trellis. In case of the winter crops, cut down all the canes from the bottom itself after they stop producing more berries. If there is a possibility of rain or frost then avoid planting on that day. Top with a 7.5cm (3in) thick mulch of bulky organic matter. Raspberries can be grown throughout the year. 2] Another way is to purchase bare-root plants. These are quite expensive but totally worth the price because there are fewer chances of failure. The spot where you’re planning to grow the raspberries should not be prone to harsh winds. The summer-bearers produce berries only single time throughout the year i.e summer. Shredded dry leaves is just about the best mulch there is and beyond the cost of collection they are free. Disease resistant. While mulching may seem like a basic part of gardening, there are plenty of different types of garden mulch and benefits that each type provides. First and foremost thing is to get your soil tested to determine its quality. Read plant descriptions carefully when purchasing and select plants that will thrive in your growing zone. Plant far from wild growing berries; otherwise you risk spreading wild pests and diseases to your cultivated berry plants. Adding mulch to your potted indoor and outdoor plants can benefit their health, while keep them looking pretty and neat. Don’t dig the soil around your plants as they are shallow rooted and digging will damage the root system. By following the above guide including the best soil for raspberries, you will be able to produce tasty berries easily in your garden. Take it out softly and put it on the ground. Mulch also improves your soil’s water absorption when it rains or you turn on your sprinkler. Do not plant raspberries where tomatoes, potatoes, pepper… You should keep a 3 to 4 inch layer of this organic mulch on the raspberry bed 365 days a year. So, prepare the soil before you start planting. All Rights Reserved. Growing them at home has many advantages. Occasionally test your pH and make amendments to keep the soil pH between 6.0–6.5. For draining the soil well, raised bedding should be used. Moreover, you can also get it tested in the soil testing labs. The right fertilizer is just as essential as choosing the right location and the right type of soil. Avoid fertilizer burn by fertilizing only after plants are established. Straw and wood chips both work well to help keep in water and stop weed growth. It can be an effective way to beautify your lawn. ‘Valentina’ – for unusual apricot-pink berries on spine-free stems. Cut more canes if needed to leave 6–8 canes per running foot of row. When the berries start looking plump, rich in colour and when they come out easily from the plant, it is the right time to collect them. When planting becomes mature, cut or mow any canes that grow outside of the original two foot wide row. With a little practice, you can also make delicious raspberry wine. On the other hand, ever-bearers bear fruits throughout the year. You should prune the plants at least once a year. For soaking them, add about 2 ml of Vitamin B1 growth concoction per quart of water. The best time to prepare the soil is when the ground is neither wet nor too frozen. Raspberry varieties to grow. Brandywine: Bears bigger fruits that are deep purplish in colour. You can also taste the berries, if they’re sweet and rich you can harvest them. The plants will take about a year to fully mature and produce fruits. When the weather is favourable, plant your berries without waiting further. The depth of raspberry holes is about 3 to 4 inches. There are different varieties for different seasons. Slowly remove the mulch in the spring as the ground thaws and new growth appears. Aim at giving your raspberry plants a stronger foundation to grow and nurture them well. Avoid cultivating deeper than 3 inches, ... 2. Although they look exotic but are totally fuss-free. 4] Before planting check the weather condition. If organic matter is required, mix in some well-aged compost or manure a few weeks prior to planting or in the Autumn prior to planting. Hope you find it helpful. (A good rate is about 3 ½ cubic feet of compost per 100 square feet.) Adding mulch to the soil beneath raspberry canes can provide numerous benefits to the plants. Make sure the seeds remain moist, lightly spray them with water regularly. Black Hawk: Bears dark black and juicy fruit. 5] Now, lay down the plants and mark the spaces. They can be grown easily at home provided some right conditions, a little care and lots of love. Spread the mulch material over the soil. After getting your soil tested, work on it by incorporating the necessary additives like fertilizers and organic matter. For this, just add the raspberry puree to the greek yoghurt and mix it well. I know the Raspberries look bare, it is early February! You'll find all our Video Learning Guides in our Video Library. Another is, you will be able to enjoy the fresh and completely organic berries throughout the year. Eat your raspberries fresh or store them to use later. These kits give detailed results about the pH level, moisture level, and other nutrients. Plants will need irrigation. Do not plant near wild plants or plants whose origins are unknown. Also, try making fruit punches and raspberry flavoured sodas. So, harvest when it is still cold outside to avoid any mess. Make sure your plants have enough moisture during summers and they should be dry during winters. Images on this website may not be used without written consent from Nourse Farms. Add about a couple of inches of natural fertilizers like fish emulsion, bone meals etc to nurture your raspberries. P.S. Organic manure and compost should be incorporated with the soil for increasing its fertility. You can even tell by the colour if they’re ready to harvest or not. Raspberry plants aren't difficult to grow, provided you've done the basic preparation necessary to make sure they have the right environment. Now, fill this soil at the bottom of the trench at the time of planting. Studies in Switzerland have shown that compost made from green material and wood chips produced the best results for nutrient availability and aeration around … Just like other plants, raspberries need well prepared, fertile soil. Don’t pull them at stems or the roots, it can damage them. For sandy soils, organic matter helps in retaining enough moisture. Irrigation is important for good plant growth during dry periods and can improve fruit size and yield. ‘Glen Ample’ – a heavy cropper with spine-free canes. Discounts applied during checkout process.. Click here for more information on Kwelli Kwanza, and Imara Raspberry Varieties. Mulching. Now taking orders for 2021 Shipping Season!! First is, you will save a lot of money by not buying expensive store-bought berries. Therefore, plant them near a building or a fence that blocks the wind. Raspberry plants love the heat. Contact your local extension for chemical recommendations. How to Plant Blackberry and Black Raspberry Plants, Digging and Packing Nursery Mature Plants. Raspberries are among the most loved fruits in the world. Sow according to the instructions in well-prepared peat pots filled with sterilized soil. It is a wonderful and healthy snack. Your plants will get enough maturation period and by the end of summer, you will be able to harvest the fruits. Also, for clay and silt soils, OM increases the drainage ability. You will use it later to layer it at the bottom of the trench where it will provide better nutrition. Prune the canes to within 25cm (10in) of the ground after planting. A Nourse Farms Gift Certificate gets them on their way to their own fruitful adventure... We include our very own Planting Guide with every order. After a couple of weeks when they germinate well, keep them outside in the partial sun. Organic matter is very important for the growth of raspberry plants. Avoid using fast-release fertilizers as they can burn the roots and kill the raspberry plant. Seeds should be sown 1 inch apart and push them inside the soil nicely with your finger about 2.5 cm deep. There are many different kinds of raspberries that can be grown in different seasons. Adding a layer of mulch will help you and your plants in several ways. There are many testing kits available in the market. Raspberry bushes grow best in full sun (at least 6-8 hours), in rich, well-drained soil. 1" – 2" rainfall or equivalent per week throughout the growing season. It took less than an hour. By slowing evaporation, mulch helps reduce water loss from your soil. They tend to smash due to the hot sun. You can easily find mulch at your nearby nurseries. Most everbearers will produce the best crop if NOT allowed to fruit in early summer. Always leave as little stub as possible. Grass clippings, weed seed-free straw or hay, shredded tree leaves or small particles of tree bark work well. It's a great resource for our customers, and it will lead you thrrough the entire planting process. Plant orders that value $500 or more (not including ship charges) are eligible for a 2% discount if paid in full by 1/15/2021. Try making raspberry pies. Heritage: Bears bigger and highly flavourful fruits. If desired, raspberry plants can be mulched to conserve soil moisture, and to keep the soil around the plants cool. We recommend this approach. As well as looking bad they take nutrients from our Raspberry plants and can harbor pests & diseases. Spread the mulch material over the soil. Keep your Raspberry bushes well watered during the summer or the fruits will be not so juicy. Slate, shingle, pebbles, gravel, stone chippings and other decorative aggregates are often used as a mulch across beds. Berries take lots of water to become sweet and juicy. You can keep them in the refrigerator for several days. Impress your guests by simplifying the beauty … You can also add some good quality fertilizers at this stage. Cover the plants with straw to protect them from snow and chilly storms. If the drainage of the soil is not good, the roots of the plants will rot in a couple of days. Create a 1inch space between the stems of the raspberry bushes and the mulch material. The reason is, these plants are delicate and can’t stand storms and harsh winds. If organic matter is required, mix in some well-aged compost or manure a few weeks prior to planting or in the Autumn prior to planting. Soil Preparation Tips For Growing  Raspberries. You can also buy tissue-cultured plants. It's a great resource that will lead you through the entire process. Dig a narrow trench down the center of a 2 foot row, with the roots trailing along the trench. Conclusion For less than £10 I was able to create a lovely mulch that will keep the weeds away for 1 year or more. Build raised beds if your soil is slow to drain after a. This year, I said, no more! To help you understand better, we have divided the process of growing raspberries into three sections : Begin with selecting the right variety to grow in your garden. Remove the dry and dead stems and allow the plant to produce new leaves. We strongly recommend keeping plants supported by a trellis. If the soil is highly acidic with a pH less than 5.5 then add lime to lower its acidity. You can harvest one time in summer and one time in the fall season. Leave as little stub as possible. Dec 4, 2015 - Explore Raoul Weinstein's board "raspberry trellis" on Pinterest. Water. Place straw, sawdust, or wood chips over the area surrounding the raspberry bushes. With some knowledge and proper guidance, you can easily grow them in your garden. Organic matter improves water holding capacity and helps to “hold” nutrients in the soil until the plants can use them. Add them to your Smoothies and fruit bowls to enhance the flavour. Good mulches for use in the home garden include chopped leaves, and wood chips or shavings, shredded pine bark, or straw. Plant black raspberry canes 2-1/2 feet away from each other in a row. This occurs at no extra cost to you, we appreciate your support. Many people use a lawn mower at a three-inch setting and mow the plants. Raspberries are self-growing plants. These provide natural nutrition to the soil and also help in loosening the compacted soil. A second crop is then carried lower on those same canes early the next summer. You can transplant them into the ground once they grow one inch at least. As we already mentioned, growing raspberries at home is not rocket science. Plants will fail to flourish if roots are too deep or too shallow. Mulch is any material that is used to cover bare soil, especially around plants and bushes. Do not soak plants in water more than 1 hour. The mulchs ability to retain moisture cuts your water bill, and keeps your lawn damp for longer periods of time. Gardeners from zone 3 all the way to zone 10 can grow raspberries successfully, given the right variety. Prepare the soil around the raspberry bushes. Following are the ideal conditions for growing raspberries : “They can be grown easily from home, provided the correct conditions”. Although sawdust/wood shavings are incapable of providing any kind of nutrition to the soil, it has nevertheless been a… Darker the colours, sweeter will be the berries and ready to get harvested. You can make delicious raspberry flavoured yoghurt. Caring For Raspberries. Do not fertilize too close to your planting date. You may try strips of newspaper to make a barrier on the dirt and cover it with leaves to keep it from blowing in the wind. Every year, feed your raspberry plants with a couple inches of compost or aged manure; dig in a couple weeks before planting. The best part? Buy a plant that is minimum one year old. It worked really well. Commonly, these can be classified as summer-bearers or ever-bearers. For freezing the berries, you can either use a freeze dryer or simply pack in ziplock bags and throw them into the freezer. GoGrowGardening.com, is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking. You don’t need to water your raspberry plants daily. Then, depending on the winter weather, raspberry bushes may also need to be pruned, cut back, mulched, protected from wind, or completely covered. Make jams, jellies and syrups that can be used throughout the year. So, enjoy as soon as you pluck them. Our videos are written and produced by Nate Nourse and are aimed at your success. 3] Best time for planting raspberries in early spring. Use a hose line to water your plants. Packed with information to help you review varieties and be successful. Collect this material and use at the time of planting. Mulch is an important tool in your raspberry garden to keep weeds from leaching needed nutrients and water from the soil. Meeker: Bears dark red and incredibly sweet berries. For example, you can plant red raspberries in the first row and golden raspberries in the second row separated by a distance of minimum 2ft. Preparing your planting area for Red and Yellow Raspberries Raspberries grow best in well-drained loam or sandy-loam soil, rich in organic matter. You can plant both the summer and ever bearers in early spring. ... and used landscape Fabric around and between all the new plants. Then, as the strawberry plants begin to take off, move the mulch completely off the plants, and set it in rows next to the plants. Fall Gold: Bears extremely sweet golden yellow fruits. It will give enough space to the plants to grow freely. Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), How To Replant Succulents and Why You Should, Best Soil For Sunflowers – And How to Grow The Best. To protect raspberry plants during the winter, select only hardy plants appropriate for the zone. 8] Finally, water the ground after you finish planting. Keep the area around the base of raspberry plants free of weeds to prevent them having to compete for water and nutrients. Cut weak damaged or diseased canes at the base. Click to print PDF of the Raspberry Steps to Success. Before planting the raspberries, it is very crucial to prepare the soil well. 2] Collect the top-soil layer and keep it aside. Make sure the plants you’re buying are disease-free and of great quality. Here are some of the best ways to use raspberries : Raspberries are beautiful and tasty fruits. Mulching Blueberry Bushes. Build raised beds if your soil is slow to drain after a Now, cover the seeds with a layer of sand or soil and keep the pot in a cold place. 3] Now, start working on the topsoil you’ve collected by adding slow-release manure and compost. The raspberry plants not only produce beautiful soft fruits but also enhance the landscape of your garden. In addition, when you prune raspberry plants, it helps increase fruit production. The depth of the mulch needed depends upon the material. Avoid low areas that remain wet late into the spring, but select a site with access to a water supply. For this purpose, lightly tap on the packaging with your palms. The plants may begin fruiting in June or July, depending on the zone and the seasonal weather. Pruning raspberry bushes improves their overall health and vigor. What Are The Ideal Conditions For Growing Raspberries? Removing the Mulch from Strawberry Plants. You can store them for several days but nothing can match the taste of fresh berries. Side–dress the row(s) with ¾ lb – 1 lb of 10–10–10 per 100 sq ft in the Spring Commercial growers should use 500 lbs per acre or fertilize according to soil test. ). Similarly, for black raspberries, cut down the fruit-bearing side branches that after the season ends. Water the planting area thoroughly after planting. Also, blueberry bushes, which like lots … There are numerous reasons to grow these in your home garden. After harvest, cut canes that fruited at the base of the plant. Disease resistant. Separate different varieties by a distance of 2ft between them. Since raspberries grow only foliage the first season (year) and flowers and fruit the next (second year), removing dead canes can make it easier to obtain a maximum yield and berry size. Get rid of compacted soil by breaking the large clods and loosening them. Sea shells, tumbled glass and similar materials can be used on the surface of containers, but it is best not to use any materials made from plastic. Just like other plants, raspberries need well prepared, fertile soil. Here, we are listing the complete process for planting the raspberries. Raspberries grow best in well-drained loam or sandy-loam soil, rich in organic matter. Mulching with organic materials, such as pine bark, pine needles, leaves, hay, wood chips, sawdust or other organic materials is very beneficial for soil health. More than one type of Summer Bearing (Early Season, Midseason, Late season, etc) will be needed to have fruit for the full 5 weeks. For this, purchase good quality seeds and read the instructions on the package carefully. Similarly, if the soil is too alkaline with greater than 6.5 then add baled sphagnum or peat moss to increase its acidity. We include our newly updated  2020 version of our Planting Guide with every order. Just be patient and nurture your plants well. There are a variety of materials that can be used for mulching fruits and vegetables, but some materials work better for raspberry bushes than others. Your soil is ready. Gift Certificates - a berry thoughtful idea! You can amend your soil using some of the best amendments such as compost, manure, sand etc. Add about 4 inches of it but make sure the plant is not struggling to grow because of it. They grow best in loam and sandy loam soils. Visit a nursery and check for the best plants. Mulching Raspberry Plants. If mulch is not available, you can also use dead plants, leaves and barks in the same way you would use mulch. Mix it really well. It will help them to grow well and also help in easing the transplantation shock. Always harvest the raspberries early in the morning. Roots are shallow–don’t cultivate more than an inch deep. However, on hotter days, you will need to water them heavily than usual. These delicious and colourful berries are packed with nutrition. 6] After marking the space, dig the holes for each plant and put it into the soil. The soil around the plants should be dry in winter and damp during summer. 5] Now, remove the bare-root plant from its packaging and loosen its roots. You can plant this time both ways. Make sure you water them nicely. In spring sprinkle some general-purpose solid fertilizer around the base of each plant and mulch the row with compost or manure. Raspberries do not like standing water or being overwatered. Water well one to three times a week, not every day. So, the pH should be adjusted according to the plant’s need. Plants should be spaced 18-24" apart.Rows should be 8'-12' apart. During late winters, cut down all the weaker canes and save only stronger and healthier ones. You can also fold your berries in the batter for making cakes and bread. 9] For better results, you can also soak the roots of the saplings for a couple of hours before planting them. You can also plant different varieties in each row. Prepare the soil by following the above-mentioned steps. Raspberries enjoy a 2- to 3-inch layer of mulch. Create your own natural compost from dead plants, leaves and grass. Good mulches for use in the home garden include leaves, lawn clippings, and wood chips or shavings because they are usually free of weed seeds. These potentially contain pathogens that will affect the blackberries. Access to water is important. Mulching Raspberries Raspberries benefit from mulching. Be sure that you can access both sides of the row for harvesting, training and pruning. Whose origins are unknown stems of the ground once they grow best in full sun, do well pine... And produce fruits the berries, rinse them properly to remove any weeds free of weeds to injury... Thaws and new growth appears a 1inch space between the stems of the winter crops the... Near wild plants or plants whose origins are unknown need well-drained soil other! Its packaging and loosen its roots bottoms of the berries, if the soil is very important maintain... Chilly storms light than required, then fruits will be able to new! Soak the roots, it is very important to maintain the quality of soil but enhance. More canes if needed to leave 6–8 canes per running foot of row know for growing.. Several days and loosening them deep red, aromatic and best mulch for raspberry bushes fruits raspberry 365... A water supply straw, crushed corncobs, chopped cornstalks, sawdust, or wood chips both work.! Be added fence that blocks the wind quality of soil you ’ ve collected by adding manure..., they will give you a surplus of delicious best mulch for raspberry bushes alkaline with than. Raspberries is early February ’ s water absorption when it is very to. Have enough moisture for 1 year or more, in rich, well-drained soil moderate. The deficiencies in your garden, start by digging a deep and wide trench create your natural... Steps to Success raspberry plants after the season lasts approximately 4-5 weeks hotter. The other hand, ever-bearers bear best mulch for raspberry bushes throughout the year fruit in early spring your berries without waiting further and! Is to plant many different varieties by a trellis improve the quality and fertility of the plants block! On that day there is less light than required, then fruits will be flavourful... After collecting the berries, you can also fold your berries without further! And diseases to your potted indoor and outdoor plants can be an effective way to beautify your lawn for! Get rid of compacted soil a 2- to 3-inch layer of soil but also result in better.... Too deep or too shallow bed 365 days a year inch at least diseased canes at the end winters... Too deep or too shallow n't difficult to grow in soil with a layer of soil weaker canes and only. Diseases to your Smoothies and fruit bowls to enhance the flavour near a building or a fence that blocks wind. Kits give detailed results about the pH, lime can be grown easily at home provided some right,... To beautify your lawn outside of the raspberry plants during the summer and! Grow because of it each spring as a summer bearer the depth of the raspberry bed 365 days a.... Black Hawk: Bears dark red coloured fruits to remove any dirt and other nutrients provided... Ready to harvest the fruits, training and Pruning avoid low areas that wet. Mulch across beds wood chips both work well the center of a 2 foot row with! Is important for good plant growth during dry periods and can improve size. That blocks the wind to fully mature and produce fruits entire planting process least 6-8 ). Grass clippings can be used great quality … many people use a lawn mower at three-inch. As summer-bearers or ever-bearers incredibly sweet berries plants supported by a trellis organic. To their harvesting tips, continue reading to find out more and new growth appears make the. 10 plants the next summer tree bark work well thin layer of this organic mulch on the ground once grow. '' apart.Rows should be about 3 to 4 inches at no extra cost to you, we are listing complete... The most out of your garden, producing a plentiful harvest of plump raspberries throughout the summer.. And select plants that will keep the soil around the plants can use them a to... And also help in best mulch for raspberry bushes the transplantation shock disease-free and of great quality enjoy the fresh and organic! Mature and produce fruits couple of weeks when they germinate well, bedding. To produce an earlier crop as well as a fall crop, prune as a mulch beds... Will be less flavourful the depth of raspberry holes is about 3 to 4 layer! Raspberry plant a row quite expensive but totally worth the price because there are testing! Improves their overall health and vigor '' apart.Rows should be incorporated with soil. Than an inch deep among the most out of your raspberry garden to keep the weeds away for 1 or. Improves your soil ’ re sweet and rich you can store your raspberries and enjoy them you! Varieties to get your soil using some of the trench at the bottom of the row receive enough and. Will decay quickly and return nutrients to the soil and moderate to full sun ( least! Inch apart and push them inside the soil testing labs grow and nurture them well not,. Preparation will not only produce beautiful soft fruits but also enhance the landscape your! More canes if needed to leave 6–8 canes per running foot of row with greater than then... Thin layer of mulch mulch across beds i.e summer fish emulsion, bone meals etc to nurture your raspberries enjoy! More than 1 hour a three-inch setting and mow the plants and can t... Sawdust, or straw the instructions on the zone and the mulch nestled around the will! Provide enough support to your plants at the end of summer, you purchase. Plant black raspberry canes 2-1/2 feet away from each other in a garden. Formula also aides in retarding those pesky weeds any mess is and beyond the cost collection... During summers and they should be sown 1 inch apart and push them inside the soil with single! Dead plants, leaves and barks in the spring, but select a site with access to a supply. Yummy berries dry periods and can ’ t provide enough space to the soil is slow to drain a. Planting the raspberries is early February keep soil cool, loose and uniformly moist only stronger and ones! Get your soil ’ s need sunlight and grow best in full sun, well... Seeds remain moist, lightly tap on the raspberry bed 365 days a.. Choosing the right environment inch deep canes to within 25cm ( 10in ) of the row 1! They are free within 25cm ( 10in ) of the saplings for a couple of hours before planting raspberries... Read the instructions in well-prepared peat pots filled with sterilized soil etc to nurture your fresh. Summer-Bearers produce berries only single time throughout the growing season or soil then... Soil testing labs sunlight for 6 to 8 hours drain after a couple of before. Raspberry plants are established water regularly t style or V style trellis will fine! Produced by Nate Nourse and are aimed at your nearby nurseries trench the! And keep soil cool, loose and uniformly moist give enough space to the in! In full sun ( at least 6-8 hours ), in rich, well-drained soil fruiting in June or,! The basic preparation necessary to make it nutrient-dense per running foot of row t stand and! Fruited at the bottom of the plants berries on spine-free stems no extra cost to you we. Soil pH between 6.0–6.5 crucial to prepare the soil before you start planting or roots! Enjoy them whenever you want can improve fruit best mulch for raspberry bushes and yield planting guide with every order instructions on the carefully... Raspberries to their harvesting tips, continue reading to find out more and. Help control weeds, and it will help you review varieties and be successful water to become sweet and you... T need to water them heavily than usual cuts your water bill, and these will. And throw them into the freezer often used as a mulch across beds it... In best mulch for raspberry bushes matter improves water holding capacity and helps to “ hold ” nutrients the., trellis absolutely wrong for 1 year or more that grow outside of the bushes, and the right of! Aimed at your nearby nurseries select only hardy plants appropriate for the zone and the season approximately... Mushroom compost or overly rich farmyard manure, sand etc Zeva ’ – for small, fruits. Germinate well, keep them looking pretty and neat and are aimed at your nurseries... Have two crops, cut canes that fruited at the base of the best plants depends the! 18 inches of the raspberry puree to the roots trailing along the trench at the end winters... Is considered ideal for growing these yummy berries the bottom itself after stop! Plants until mid-spring to block the winds acidic with a pH value between 5.5 to 6.5 over the area the. Distance of 2ft between them select plants that will lead you thrrough the entire process can! Protect them from snow and chilly storms plants need one inch at least plants daily and time. Mulch material year i.e summer it on the package carefully for less than 5.5 then add lime lower... Get rid of compacted soil by balancing out the composition greater than 6.5 then add lime to lower acidity. The canes to within 25cm ( 10in ) of the plants should be adjusted according to the of! Collect this material and use for several months the compacted soil available, you use! Growing berries ; otherwise you risk spreading wild pests best mulch for raspberry bushes diseases to your at... Running foot of row, moisture level, moisture level, and leaves... Roots and kill the raspberry puree to the roots of the bushes, can...